Reciting Vayehi Noam This Motzei Shabbos

1) On Motzei Shabbos immediately following Shemoneh Esrei of Maariv we recite the Tefillah of Vayehi Noam. Whenever Pesach, or any Yom Tov, (which prohibits work) falls on a weekday the paragraph of Vayehi Noam which is normally said after Shabbos, is omitted. (Rama 295)
2) This year, Pesach takes place on Friday night. The question is whether one should recite Vayehi Noam on the previous Motzei Shabbos (after Shabbos Hagadol).  According to the Mishnah Berurah (295 Shaar Hatzion 5) one should recite Vayehi Noam. However, the custom of Yerushalayim (Vayitzchak Yikareh on M.B.) is not to recite Vayehi Noam this Motzei Shabbos, since Erev Pesach occurs on Friday and certain restrictions against work are in effect on Erev Pesach after Chatzos. This is also the view of Rav Moshe Feinstein zt”l (Shmatisah D’Moshe page 345). For normative Halacha a rabbi should be consulted.

The Custom of Gebrokts on Pesach

  1. Some communities have a custom not to eat matzah in any form that came in contact with water or other liquids during Pesach. (Refer to Shu”t Baal Hatania 6 and M.B. 458:4) This custom is known as avoiding eating “Gebrokts”. [This word literally means “broken” and it has come to mean wet matzah is usually ground or broken up into crumbs before it is mixed in with water]
  2. The reason for this custom is out of concern that some of the matzah flour was not kneaded well and when it will come in contact with the liquid it will become chametz. (Shaarei Teshuva cited in M.B. ibid.)
  3. Since the last day of Pesach is only rabbinic in the Diaspora, many of those who are strict in avoiding eating Gebrokts, did not accept if for the last day of Pesach. (See Halichos Shlomo Pesach page 91 Dvar Halacha for a full explanation. Refer to Shulchan Menachem of the Lubavitcher Rebbe zt”l vol. 2 page 354 where he discusses whether one should actively be lenient on this day and eat Gebrokts)
  4. A woman, upon marriage, assumes the custom of her husband. (Refer to Igros Moshe O.C. 1:158 and Halichos Shlomo Pesach page 91)
  5. Harav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach zt”l rules that if one avoids eating Gebrokts, he should avoid even the utensils that were used to prepare gebrokts dishes. (Halichos Shlomo Pesach page 89)
  6. Even if one is strict not to eat Gebrokts, it is not muktzah throughout Pesach. (Opinion of Rav Shmuel Kamanetzky shlit”a Kovetz Halachos Pesach page 101)

Purim Halachos

Taanis Esther
1) In the days of Mordechai and Esther, the Jews gathered together on the thirteenth of Adar to defend themselves against their enemies. They needed to ask mercy from G-d to assist them. When the Jews went to war, they would fast so that G-d would aid them, as Moshe did when we went to war against Amalek. Because of this, we can assume that at the time of Mordechai and Esther, they fasted on the thirteenth of Adar. This day has been accepted by the Jewish people as a communal fast called Taanis Esther, a reminder that G-d watches us and hears each person’s prayers in his time of trouble when he fasts and sincerely returns to G-d, just as He did for our ancestors in those days.
2) Pregnant and nursing do not fast if they are feeling weak. The Mishnah Berurah (686:4) cites a debate amongst the poskim whether a pregnant or nursing woman must fast in the event that she feels fine. He concludes (Shaar Hatzion 10) that each person should follow the custom of his area.  The opinion of the Aruch Hashulchan (686:4), Kaf Hachaim (686:21) and Divrei Yetziv (O.C. 2:291) and Harav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach zt”l (oral ruling cited by Harav Nevenzhal shlit”a B’Yitzchak Yikareh) is to be lenient and all pregnant and nursing women need not fast regardless of how they feel. For normative halacha a rav should be consulted. All agree that a women who gave birth in the last month does not fast even if she feels great (Mishnah Berurah ibid.).
3) In the event that a nursing or pregnant woman is not fasting, the poskim debate whether she must make up the fast on a different day. For normative halacha, a rav must be consulted.
4) The Rama (686:2) rules that a Choleh Shein Bo Sakana (bedridden) or someone with an eye ache who is in great pain may eat on Taanis Esther but should make up the fast on another day.  The Kaf Hachaim (686:22) adds that anyone who has to eat on the doctor’s orders doesn’t have to make it up afterwards. Before one decides to break his fast he should first consult with a rav.
5) One need not train his children to fast, even at the age of twelve for boys or eleven for girls. Once they have reached the age of chinuch they shouldn’t eat lavish meals, but rather only what is necessary. Harav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach zt”l and ybc”l Harav Neventzhal shlit”a write that although many boys have the custom to fast three fasts before they become bar-mitzvah, this custom has no source. (Mishnah Berurah 550:5, Halichos Shlomo vol. 3 page 398-399 and B’Yitzchak Yikare on Mishnah Berurah)
6) The fast of Taanis Esther begins at dawn. Even though the fast begins from dawn, sometimes the prohibition against eating begins from the previous evening. For example, if, before the arrival of dawn, a person decides not to eat any more until the fast begins, he is seen as having accepted the fast upon himself, and it is now forbidden for him to eat. Therefore, if a person goes to bed in anticipation of the fast and then rises before dawn, it is forbidden for him to eat, for he diverted his thoughts from eating. If one wishes to wake up before dawn  and eat or drink, he should stipulate before going to sleep that he intends to wake up early to eat or drink and that the fast should not begin until dawn. The Shulchan Aruch (564) rules that if one did not make this stipulation he may not eat or drink. However, according the Rama he may still drink, even without making a stipulation.
7) The Mishnah Berurah (567:11) maintains that only if one is in pain may one rinse one’s mouth on a public fast day (such as Taanis Esther) and in such a case one should bend one’s head downward so one doesn’t swallow any water.
8) If one has bad breath and it causes him discomfort or embarrassment, he may use mouthwash on Taanis Esther. He may also brush his teeth with toothpaste but not with water. (Beer Moshe 8:94, Minchas Yitzchak 4:109)
9) If one needs to take medicine on Taanis Esther he may take them without water. If he cannot swallow the pills without a little water, he may swallow a very small amount of water (just enough to get the pills down). (Opinion of Rav Debreczin zt”l cited in Nitev Gavriel Bein Hatzomos page 54)
Machatzis Hashekel
1) The practice before Purim is to donate half of the monetary unit of one’s time and place (e.g., half a dollar, half a pound, etc.) in memory of the half-shekel that was donated in Adar to purchase animals for the communal sacrifices. The custom is to give three times this half unit (e.g., $1.50) because parshas Ki Sisa uses the word “terumah” (donation) three times. (Rama 694:1)
2) The common practice is for the shul/tzedaka pushka to supply three half dollars. Each person gives $1.50 to the tzedaka in exchange for the 3 half dollars. He then lifts up the three half dollars in order to acquire them. And finally he donates the three half dollars in order to perform the mitzvah of Machatzis Hashekel. Harav Yaakov Kametzky zt”l (Emes L’Yaakov page 160) is cited as saying that one  should give a little more than $1.50 in exchange for the 3 half dollars. Since we don’t like to make exact change from tzedaka.
3) The money of the Machatiz Hashekel is donated to charity (Shaarei Teshuva 694:2). Some specifically send it to the poor of Israel. (Yosef Ometz 1089) Harav Yitzchak Yosef shlit”a writes that one should give the money to Yeshivos that are teaching young Torah scholars. (Yalkut Yosef Kitzur Shulchan Aruch page 770)
4) The poskim offer three opinions as to when one should perform the Machatzis Hashekel. A) The Rama writes that one performs the Machatzis Hashekel before Mincha on Taanis Esther. B) Harav Yaakov Emden zt”l and the Chasam Sofer maintained that it should be performed following Mincha on Taanis Esther. (See Netai Gavriel Purim Chapter 26 and Yismach Yisrael page 28 for view of Harav Elyashiv zt”l) C) While others perform it on Purim morning (Magen Avraham 694:2). It seems the common custom is to follow the first opinion of the Rama. (Mishnah Berurah 694:4, Kaf Hachaim 694:25, Yismach Yisrael page 28 view of Rav Chaim Kanievsky shlit”a)
5) If one did not perform the Machatzis Hashekel before Purim he should perform it as soon as possible during the month of Adar. According to Rav Chaim Kanievsky shlit”a b’dieved one should perform Machatzis Hashekel even after Adar (oral ruling cited in Yismach Yisrael page 28). Similarly, the Sefer Avnei Yashfei (1:133) writes that b’dieved if one forgot to perform the Machatzis Hashekel he can do so for 12 months after Purim (until the following Nissan).
6) One may not use Maaser money for the Machatzis Hashekel. If one chooses to give more than the required amount ($1.50), the excess may be given from Maaser money. (Yosef Ometz 1088)
7) The Rama writes that one is only obligated to give Machatzis Hashekel once one reaches the age of twenty. The Mishnah Berurah cites the view of the Tosafos Yom Tov that one is actually obligated once he reaches the age of thirteen. The Mishnah Berurah then explains that the common custom is for the father to give Machatzis Hashekel for his children even those below the age of thirteen and even for those in utero. [He adds that once his father gives on the minor’s behalf, he is obligated to continue doing so.]
8) There is a debate amongst the poskim whether women are obligated to perform Machatzis Hashekel. The common practice is that the husband performs Machatzis Hashekel for the women in his family. (Magen Avraham 694:3, Netai Gavriel 27, Halichos Shlomo Purim 18:9 and Shevet Halevi 7:183)
Parshas Zachor
1) There is a mitzvah to remember what Amalek did to Klal Yisrael upon leaving Egypt. This is performed by reading “Parshas Zachor”, the portion of the Torah from Parshas Ki Setzei (Devarim 25:17) where the Torah recounts briefly what Amalek did and admonishes us to remember and not forget this episode. The Torah finishes by commanding us to wipe out any vestige of Amalek. On the Shabbos before Purim, we read parshas Zachor (Deut. 25:17-19). (Shulchan Aruch 685:1)
2) The consensus of the Rishonim and poskim is that the obligation to read Parshas Zachor is biblical in nature. (Tosafos Brachos 13a, Eshkol Purim 10, Chinuch 603, Beis Yosef and Shulchan Aruch 685:7)
3) One is obligated to hear Parshas Zachor with a minyan of men. (See Magen Avraham, Mishnah Berurah 16 and Shaar Hatzion 5 for a discussion whether this obligation is biblical or rabbinic in nature) Therefore, it is extremely important for one to go to Shul to hear Parshas Zachor.
4) One must read Parshas Zachor from a kosher Sefer Torah. According to many this is a biblical obligation, see Magen Avraham, Mishnah Berurah. [The Minchas Chinuch 603, however, maintains that the need to read it from a Sefer Torah is only rabbinic in nature.]
5) Harav Ovadia Yosef zt”l explains that if one read it from a chumash he has not fulfilled his obligation. (Yechava Daas 3:53) [It should be noted that according to the Minchas Chinuch ibid. he has fulfilled his obligation on a Biblical level. However, even the Minchas Chinuch will agree that using a Chumash will not fulfill the rabbinic obligation.]
6) One should ensure that he hears every word of the Parshas Zachor. Harav Tzvi Pesach Frank zt”l  (Mikraei Kodesh Purim 6) maintains that if one missed even one word he has not fulfilled his obligation. In this regard Parshas Zachor has the same halachos as hearing the Megillah, which according to most opinions one has to hear every word to fulfill his obligation (see Mishnah Berurah 690:5).This also appears to be the view of Harav Chaim Kanievsky shlit”a  (cited in the Sefer Yismach Yisroel Purim page 8). However, according to Harav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach zt”l (Halichos Shlomo Purim page 323) even if one missed a few words one has fulfilled his obligation, as long as he heard the main message of Parshas Zachor.
7) The Minchas Elazar of Munkatch zt”l writes that one is not required to read Parshas Zachor along quietly with the Chazan, however, it is preferable to do so. Harav Ovadia Yosef zt”l disagrees with this view. He writes that it is preferable to listen quietly to the reading of the chazan without reading along with him. He explains that it is much better to focus on listening to the chazzan who is reading from a kosher Sefer Torah, than to place any focus on one’s own reading from a Chumash. (Yechava Daas 3:53)
8) It is well known that Sefardim and Ashkenazim differ in their pronunciation of many letters. The poskim discuss whether an Ashkenazi can hear Parshas Zachor in a Sefardic shul and vice versa. Harav Ovadia Yosef zt”l (Yabia Omer 6 O.C. 11:6) writes that he would often tell Sefardic students who learned in Ashkenazi Yeshivos that for Parshas Zachor they should make sure to hear the Sefardic pronunciation. Similarly, Harav Tzvi Pesach Frank zt”l (Mikraei Kodesh page 88) would urge Ashkenazim to hear Parshas Zachor in Ashkenzic shuls and not in Sefardic shuls. Harav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach zt”l (Halichos Shlomo page 323) explains that although l’chatchila one should hear Parshas Zachor with the pronunciation based upon his family custom, however, b’dieved one fulfills his obligation under all circumstances. It is extremely common that sefardim daven in Ashkenazic shuls and vice versa and since it is difficult to leave one’s shul even for one Shabbos, one should absolutely consult with his or her rav before davening in a different location.
9) There is a dispute among the Poskim whether or not women are obligated to hear the reading of Parashas Zachor. It would seem that women are obligated to hear Parshas Zachor since it is a positive commandment that is not time based.  However, the Sefer Ha’Chinuch maintains that women are exempt from hearing Parashat Zachor since the underlying reason for reading this portion is to remember the actions of Amalek in order to wage war against them and women do not usually take part in active combat nor are they commanded in the Mitzvah of fighting; therefore, they are not obligated to hear the reading of Parashat Zachor. Harav Chaim Kanievsky shlit”a writes that this is also the view of the Chazon Ish (Sefer Taama Dikra 23) and Harav Gavriel Zinner shlit”a (Netai Gavriel page 153) writes that this was the view of the Brisker Rav.  This is also the view of Harav Shmuel Wosner zt”l (Kovetz M’Beis Levi 15 page 17). Harav David Feinstein shlit”a (Vedibarta Bam page 501) also feels that women are exempt from hearing Parshas Zachor, however, those that chose to hear the reading have performed a mitzvah.
10) The Minchas Chinush questions the assumption of the Chinuch by pointing to the fact that we are not permitted to speculate what the reasons are for certain mitzvos and apply special exemptions based on our own reasoning. Who is to say that the mitzvah of reading Parshas Zachor is at all related to the mitzvah of fighting Amalek? Perhaps even when Amalek is completely obliterated we will still be commanded to remember them. Many poskim, including Rav Nosson Adler zt”l (Binyan Tzion 8), Minchas Elazar (2:1-5), Harav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach zt”l (Halichos Shlomo Tefila page 69 footnote 68) and Rav Ovadia Yosef zt”l (Yabia Omer 8:54), are of the opinion that women are obligated to hear Parashas Zachor. Therefore, a woman should do her best to come to shul to hear Parshas Zachor (opinion of Rav Moshe Feinstein zt”l cited in Halichas Bas Yisroel 22:1).
11) All agree that if a woman cannot go to shul, she should read Parshas Zachor herself from a chumash, since according to the Minchas Chinuch one can fulfill the biblical obligation by reading it in a chumash (Yabia Omer ibid.).
12) It is quite common for shuls to have a special reading of Parshas Zachor following shul specifically for women who could not come for davening. No blessing is recited during this reading. (Minchas Yitzchok 9:68) Harav Yosef Shalom Elyashiv zt”l (oral ruling cited in Halichas Bas Yisrael page 296) maintains that one must make sure that a minyan of men is present during this reading. Harav Shmuel Wosner zt”l (Kovetz M’Beis Levi 15 page 17) and others, however, opposed this entire practice of reading the Torah just for women (even if ten men are present). For practical halacha a rav should be consulted.
Mishloach Manos
1) There is a mitzvah to give Mishloach Manos, two foods to one person, on Purim day. (S.A. 695:4)
2) There are two reasons found in the poskim for this Mitzvah. A) To ensure that everyone, especially the poor, will have sufficient food for the Purim meal. (Terumas Hadeshen 111) B) To increase love and friendship between Jews, thereby dismissing Haman’s accusations that there is strife and dissention among Jews. This is an ideal opportunity to repair broken relationships by sending packages to people with whom one has ill feelings. (Manos Halevi cited by Chasam Sofer O.C. 196)
3) The Ksav Sofer (141) explains that there is a difference of halacha between these two reasons, and that is if one can fulfill the mitvah by giving Mishloach Manos anonymously. According to the first reason one would still fulfill the mitzvah since in this case the receiver will have food for the Purim meal. However, according to the second reason one who sends mishloach manos anonymously does not fulfill the mitzvah since no friendship or goodwill is generated between him and the recipient. It is  preferred to fulfill the mitzvah according to both reasons.
4) In order to fulfill the mitzvah of Mishloach Manos one needs to send two foods to one person. However it is not necessary for the items to require two different blessings. For example, one may send two different cakes or two fruits.
5) Indeed, according to many poskim one can fulfill the mitzvah by sending two cuts of meat as long as they taste different (beef hotdog and hamburger, white and dark meat of the chicken). (See Mikraei Kodesh 38, Halichos Shlomo page 336, Tzitz Eliezer 14:65, 15:31, Yalkut Yosef Kitzur S.A. page 773, Avnei Yashfei 4:83 and Yismach Yisrael page 95) It is therefore clear that two different brachos are not required.
6) It is important to note that the aforementioned poskim were only lenient if the two foods have a different taste. However, one cannot fulfill the mitzvah by sending two items of the same food, two hotdogs etc.
7) A drink is considered a food item as well, therefore, one may send one drink item and one food item for the mishloach manos. One can even send two different drinks. However, it appears that the custom is to send at least one food item and not two drinks. (M.B. 695:20 and Yismach Yisroel page 95. See Yalkut Yosef Kitzur S.A. page 773 who writes that it is preferred to send two foods to fulfill the mitzvah and not to fulfill the mitzvah through drinks. However, the common custom is to be lenient and to fufill the mitzvah with at least one drink, such as a bottle of wine and cake.)
8) The poskim debate whether one can fulfill the mitzvah by sending spices which are not eaten on their own, such as sugar, pepper, etc. (Yismach Yisrael page 99). For normative halacha, a rav should be consulted.
9) The Mishloach Manos are given on Purim day. If one sends them in the mail before Purim and it arrives on Purim day it would seem that one fulfills his obligation since the package was received on Purim. This is indeed the view of many poskim (see Beer Heitiv 695:7, Shraga Hameir 4:31, Az Nidberu 6:80). However the Aruch Hashulchan (695:17) maintains one does not fulfill his obligation if it was shipped before Purim, even if it arrives on Purim day.
10) All agree that if the Mishloach Manos will arrive before or after Purim day that one has not fulfilled his obligation.
11) The poskim discuss whether one can fulfill his obligation by sending food to someone who for medical reasons cannot eat the food, such as sugary foods to a diabetic. According to Harav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach zt”l one can fulfill his mitzvah with these foods. It seems, however, that Harav Yehoshua Neubert zt”l and ybc”l Harav Yitzchak Zilberstein shlit”a maintain that one does not fulfill his obligation since this food does not bring the diabetic simcha as he cannot eat it. (See Halichos Shlomo 19:11 and Nishmas Abraham page 324) Similarly, Harav Efraim Greenblatt zt”l (Shu”t Rivevos Efraim 6:387) writes that one cannot fulfill his obligation by sending meat to a vegetarian, since it will not bring him joy.
12) The Mishnah Berurah cites the view of the Aruch Lner who suggests that one must send the Mishloach Manos through a shliach, messenger in order to fulfill the mitzvah. Harav Eliezer Yehuda Waldenberg zt”l (Tzitz Eliezer 9:33) writes that most commentaries disagree with this assumption and they maintain that one need not send it through a shliach, rather, one may deliver it by himself. In addition, he explains that the Aruch Lner himself concludes that it is unnecessary to send it through a shliach. Harav Yisroel Belsky zt”l (Piskei Harav Belsky page 122) is cited as ruling that although the majority of poskim maintain that one may deliver Mishloach Manos himself, nonetheless, one should send at least one set of Mishloach Manos with a messenger to accommodate all opinions.
Purim Halachos (Assorted)
1) The Rama (695:2) writes that it is preferable to wear Shabbos clothing on Purim. The Mishnah Berurah (3) explains that one should begin wearing the Shabbos clothing on Purim night (when the Megillah is read).
2) We recite Al Hanissim during Shemoneh Esrei on Purim. We begin reciting it during Maariv on Purimnight. The Sefer Ishei Yisrael (page 319) writes that the gabbai may announce in Shul “Remember to say Al Hanissim” right before Shemoneh Esrei for Maariv, but not before Shemoneh Esrei of Shachris.
3) It is commonly known that many people during Shemoneh Esrei will say the words “Al Hanissim” out load in order to remind others to say it (the same is true for “Yaaleh Veyavo”), The Ishei Yisroel cites the Chazon Ish and Harav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach zt”l that one should not do this and that this is not “derech eretz” towards tefillah to say a few words out loud.
4) Many people wear costumes on Purim. (see Rama 696:8) There are many reasons given for this. The most common being in order to enhance the simcha on Purim. Harav Nissam Karelitz shlit”a is cited (see Yismach Yisroel page 188) as saying that one should not wear costumes that scare people.
5) Harav Shmuel Wosner zt”l was asked whether one may daven on Purim while dressed in a costume (e.g. a litvish person wearing a streimel). He maintains that as long as one prays with a high level of seriousness and does not stoop to levity, it is permitted. For practical halacha, a rav must be consulted.
6) There is a mitzvah to eat a meal (“Purim Seuda”) on Purim day. (S.A. 695:1)
7) The poskim debate whether one must eat bread at the meal to fulfill the mitzvah. (see Aruch Hashulchan 695:7 and Yismach Yisrael page 179) It seems that the common custom is to eat bread at the meal.
8) The custom is to eat hamantashen on Purim. (see Sefer Matammim Purim 3) One of the reasons given is that the word “Tash” in Hebrew means “weaken.” Therefore, the hamantash celebrates the weakening of Haman and our wish that G-d always save us by weakening our enemies. (Otzar Kol Minhagei Yeshurun page 126)
Matanos L’Evyonim
1) The mitzvah of Matanos L’Evyonim on Purim is to give at least one gift to two different poor people on Purim day. (S.A. 694:1)
2) There is a great discussion amongst the poskim as to the proper amount to give to each poor person. The Ritva writes that even a perutah (i.e., a minuscule amount of money) may be given to each of the two poor people in order to fulfill this mitzvah. However, others maintain that practically one should give enough money with which the poor person can purchase for himself a decent meal. (see Yismach Yisroel page 121 and Halichos Olam vol. 1 page 233) I have heard from Rabbanim that the amount of money that a poor person would need to purchase a bagel, coffee, and some other small side dish or two slices of pizza and a can of soda, definitely suffices for the minimum amount required to be given to each of the two poor people. For practical halacha, a rav should be consulted.
3) The poskim maintain that giving a check to a poor person fulfills the mitzvah of Matanos L’evyonim. (Rivevos Efraim 5:455:2 and Halichos Shlomo Purimpage 342)
4) Harav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach zt”l explains that one can use a check even if the bank is not open on Purim. (Halichos Shlomo ibid.) This is also the view of Harav Yisroel Belsky zt”l (Piskei Harav Belsky page 124)
5) Harav Belsky zt”l (Piskei Harav Belsky ibid.) explains that the custom is not to give a post-dated check for the mitzvah of Matanos L’Evyonim. He then adds that some poskim opine that one should not give a check if he does not have sufficient funds to cover the check. However, if one will accrue the funds by the time the poor person cashes the check then it is permitted.
R’ Avi Zakutinsky sends out 2 halachos a day. To subscribe to that daily email, please email and ask to be signed up. Thank you

When To Name A Baby

1) Naming A Boy– It is well known that the custom is to name the boy at the Bris. This custom is sourced in the Rishonim. (Siddur Ri Ben Yakar) The reason for this is that only after the baby is in his perfected state, after the removal of the orlah (foreskin), is the baby prepared to receive his Jewish name. (Chesed l’Avraham 2:52)
2) The poskim discuss what to do if a child is ill and will not be able to have the bris on time at 8 days: A) The Sefer Chemudei Daniel is of the opinion that if a child is ill and will not have a bris for weeks, one may give him a name before the bris. According to the Chamudei Daniel one should name the baby before he is 8 days old, while the Sefer Kores Bris (page 25) maintains one should name before the bris, but after the baby is 8 days old. Indeed, there were rabbanim who endorsed naming an ill baby before the bris so that the baby will have a name that others can use when davening for his recovery. Rav Moshe Feinstein zt”l and the Satmar Rebbe zt”l are also cited as advising one to give an ill child a name, even before the bris. (Refer to Kovetz Asia page 244) B) Harav Shach zt”l is cited as ruling that one should only name the baby before the bris if the baby is in a life threatening situation. However, if the bris is postponed because the baby’s bilirubin levels are high, however, the baby is not in a life threatening situation, one should not name the baby before the bris. C) The Steipler Gaon zt”l is cited as ruling that one should never name the baby before the bris. According to the Steipler Gaon zt”l if one wishes to daven for the baby one would pray for “tinok (child) ben plonis.”
3) Naming A Girl– The custom is to name the girl when the father receives an aliyah to the Torah. The Gabbai recites a special Mi Sheberach and the baby is formally named.
4) There are various customs as to when to name the baby girl, however, there are primarily two approaches:
A) The view of the Bnei Yisasschar was to name the baby at the first Torah reading after the birth, even if that is a Monday or Thursday, and one does not wait for Shabbos. (See Minchas Yitzchak 4:107) This is also the view of the Minchas Elazar of Munkatch zt”l and is followed by Munkatcher Chassidim. This is also the custom of Chabad, (Shaarei Halacha U’Minhag Y.D. page 297) Ziditshov and Spinka Chassidim. (Netai Gavriel Niddah vol. 3 page 595)
Similarly, according to the custom of Chabad Chassidim, if a mother gives birth on Shabbos morning after Shachris, the father will name the baby at Mincha.

B) While others name the baby at the Torah reading on the first Shabbos after birth. As it states in the Sefer Ben Uziel Parshas Shemos, “I have heard in the name of Rav Yechezkal of Shinova zt”l that he was particular not to name a girl during the week, rather only to do so on Shabbos. He explained that the reason being that a baby boy receives his holy neshama at the bris milah, however, a baby girl receives her holy neshama on Shabbos.” The Avnei Nezer is also as cited as being very particular that one name a girl on Shabbos. (Siach Sarfei Kodesh 3:283) This is also the practice of many chassidim, including Siget, Satmar, Tchernobel, Sanz, Ger, Amshinov, Bialeh and Belz. This is also the custom of many sefardim. (Mishnas Yehoshua Bas page 209)
5) The custom of Belz is that they name on Shabbos. However, if the baby is born on Friday, they will wait and name the baby the following Shabbos (8 days later).
6) The custom of Sanz and Babov is to name the baby on Shabbos. This is true even if during the week is Yom Tov, they still wait for Shabbos.
7) Harav Gavriel Zinner shlit”a writes that all agree that if a baby girl is born ill and requires others to daven for her health that one should name her right away and one need not wait for a day that the Torah is read.

Who Chooses The Name Of The Baby

1) The right to name the child belongs to the parents of the child and to them alone. No other person (grandparents etc.) should get involved in the naming of the child. As the Lubavitcher Rebbe zt”l writes, “As for her question regarding a suggestion as to what to name the child that was born, may he live. The Response of my father in law, the Rebbe, on this matter is known: He does not get involved in these matters. [This lack of involvement] is understood in light of the Arizal’s words that parents are given the thought from Above as to what to name the boy or girl that is born, a name connected to this child’s soul, so that the letters of the name are connected to the life force of the sould and body.” (Likkutei Sichos vol. 12 page 182. See also Bris Avos 8:30)
2) The common custom is that the parents do not reveal the name to others until the baby is formally named (the boy at the bris and there are various custom when the girl is formally named). Rav Sarya Deblitzky shlit”a explains that the reason that the name is not revealed to others is out of concern of ayin hara. (See Avnei Yashfei 1:196:6)
3) Whose side of the family should name the first child, and any subsequent children, is dependent on custom:
Sephardic Custom– The Sephardic custom has always been to name the first child from the father’s side of the family and the next child from the mother’s side and it continues with this pattern.
Rav Ovadia Yosef zt”l (Yabia Omer 5 Y.D. 21), citing Rishonim, points to the naming of Yehuda’s children in Sefer Breishis as the source of this custom. The Torah records that Yehuda named his first son (Er), and his wife named the second son (Onan). Thus it is evident that the first child is named by the father and the second by the mother. [Although, the Torah mentions that his wife named the third son as well, the Daas Zekeinim Mibaalei Hatosafos points out that the Torah specifically tells us that Yehuda was out of town at the time of the naming of his third child and was therefore unable to name him. If both parents are present, however, it seems that they should alternate namign the children, with the father naming the first child.]
4) Interestingly, the Lubavitcher Rebbe zt”l was asked what is the proper order for naming children and he explains that if there is no set custom in the locale, one should follow the custom of the Rishonim, cited above, that the first child is named by the father, the second by the mother and so on. (Likkutei Sichos vol. 7 page 308)

5) The Ben Ish Chai (Year 2 Shoftim 27) maintains that even if the father wishes to forgo the honor and wishes to let the wife name the first baby after the mother’s side, he may not do so. However, Rav Ovadia Yosef zt”l writes that if the paternal grandfather is willing to forgo the honor, they may name the baby after the maternal grandfather. Such as the maternal grandfather was a rabbi etc. This is especially so when the need to maintain shalom bayis is at play. For practical halacha, a competent rabbi should be consulted.

6) According to this custom if the child is given two names, one after the father’s side and one after the mother’s side, the name after the father’s side should be used first.
7) Ashkenazic Custom– The current Ashkenazic custom is that the mother’s side of the family has the rights to the first name. (See Hamaor 5732:2, Shearim Metzuyanim B’Halacha 163:22 and Igros Moshe Y.D. 3:101)
One reason given for this custom is that the bond between a daughter and her parents is weakened by her marriage because she leaves their home and now has responsibilities to her husband. Indeed, this weakened bond manifests itself in the halacha that a married woman is no longer obligated in the mitzvah of kibud av v’em as it may interfere with her responsibilities toward her husband. In order to strengthen this newly weakened bond, the first child is named from the mother’s side of the family. (See Kovetz Noam vol. 13 page 194)
Rav Chaim Kanievsky shlit”a offers a second reason for this custom. He explains that since the mother just went through a painful delivery process, she is given the rights of the naming of the first child in order to help ease the pain. (Halichos Ketanim U’ketanos page 31)

8) According to this custom if the child is given two names, one after the father’s side and one after the mother’s side, the name after the mother’s side should be used first.
9) Despite the various customs, cited over the last few emails, great should be taken that no arguments arise when naming the baby and that both the husband and wife are happy with the decision. (See Tziporan Shamir 186 and Ziv Hasheimos page 30)

Chanukah (Assorted Halachos)

1) On all eight days of Chanukah, complete Hallel is said. (Shulchan Aruch 683:1) If one accidentally only recited a “Chatzi Hallel” (he omitted the chapters of Lo Lanu and Ahavti), he should repeat the complete Hallel without reciting the Brachos at the beginning and end of Hallel. (Ishei Yisroel page 481, regarding Hallel on Pesach, citing the view of Harav Wosner zt”l in Shevet Halevi 7:62. See, however, Rivevos Efraim 4:105 who maintains that one should recite the blessings as well.)
2)The Zohar Hakadosh (Shemos 12a) writes that during the months of Teves, Av, and Tamuz the middah of din, judgement, is very pronounced in the world. The Minchas Elazar of Munkatch (3:66) writes that based on this teaching of the Zohar, the Rav of Rozvadov zt”l encouraged his children not to marry during these three months. Similarly, the Lubavitcher Rebbe zt”l (Igros Kodesh Vol. 18 Page 16), in a letter to one of his followers, writes that, “Our custom is not to make weddings during the month of Teves.” Perhaps the reason that Chabad Chassidim refrain from marrying during the month of Teves is due to the words of the Zohar Hakadosh. Sqaure Chassidim also refrain from making weddings during the month of Teves. (Netai Gavriel Nisuin 48:37) However, the Minchas Elazar continues to note that the common custom is to allow for weddings to take place during the month of Teves. Harav Gavriel Zinner shlit”a, citing the Pupa Rebbe zt”l, explains that everyone agrees that one is allowed to get married during Chanukah, even though a few days of Chanukah take place during the month of Teves. (Netai Gavriel ibid.)
3) It is a mitzvah for a mourner to serve as the chazzan during the eleven months that he recites kaddish. (Rama 376:4) The poskim debate whether a mourner may serve as the chazzan onChanukah: A- Some say that he may serve as the chazzan for Mincha and Maariv, but not for Shachris since Hallel is recited. (M.B. 684:1) B- Some disagree and hold that he may serve as the chazzan during Shachris until after Shemoneh Esrei, but should be replaced for Hallel. (M.B. 581:7, citing Machatzis Hashekel) C- While some poskim hold that a mourner does not serve as chazzan at all during Chanukah. (M.B. ibid, citing Gra) Many chassidim follow this last view. For normativa halacha, one should follow his family custom.
4) The Shulchan Aruch  (670 1,3) rules that one may not deliver a hesped, eulogy, on Chanukah. However, a eulogy for a talmid chochom in his presence is permitted. Harav Neventzhal shlit”a cites Rav Yosef Chaim Zonnenfeld zt”l, who refused to discuss negative news or sad reports on Chanukah. He felt that talking about something depressing is akin to delivering a eulogy and is not appropriate for Chanukah. (BYitzchak Yikareh 670)
5) On Chanukah, when lighting the menorah, one should not speak between the brachos and the beginning of the lighting of the candles. If one did speak, if the conversation concerned the lighting itself, he is not required to repeat the brachos. If the conversation did not concern the lighting, he is required to repeat the brachos. (See M.B. 432:5 and Laws ofChanukah by Rav Shimon Eider page 28) Preferably, one should not speak until he completed lighting all the candles. However, if he spoke after lighting at least one candle the brachos are not repeated. (Laws of Chanukah ibid.)
6) The poskim debate whether one should light the Chanukah lights before reciting Havdalah this Motzei Shabbos, or is Havdalah recited before kindling the Chanukahlights. (See Shulchan Aruch, Rama, Mishnah Berurah and Biur Halacha 681 for full discussion) In shul, the custom is to light Chanukah lights first. At home, however, since there is basis for both views, one should continue to conduct himself according to his own custom. If one has no specific custom he should perform Havdalah first and then kindle the Chanukah lights. (Opinion of Harav Yosef Eliyahu Henkin zt”l cited in Luach and of Harav Shimon Eider zt”l in Halachos of Chanukah page 44)
7) During Chanukah, many refrain from visiting the cemetery on the death anniversary of relatives, because such a visit is liable to evoke tears and eulogizing, acts forbidden during Chanukah. Instead, they visit the cemetery before or after Chanukah. Others do not refrain from going to the cemetery on Chanukah, and this is the practice of some Ashkenazi communities. (See Gesher Hachaim 29:5) However, all permit visiting the graves of the righteous duringChanukah (Ben Ish Chai) (See also Yalkut Yosef Kitzur Shulchan AruchChanukah who cites those that are strict but who concludes that “those who act leniently have whom to rely on).
8) From a half hour prior to the time of lighting the menorah (approximately 10-15 minutes before sunset) one may not eat. (M.B. 672:10) A snack, however, is permitted. (Halachos of Chanukah by Rav Shimon Eider page 22) The definition of snack, for this discussion, is fruit and drinks. One may also eat bread and mezonos less than the size of a volume of an egg. (see Piskei Teshuvos page 479). The custom is for women to refrain from eating as well, even though they don’t light themselves. However, if a woman is not feeling well she may eat. (Bitzeil Hachochma 4:58 and Netai Gavriel Chanukah 5:5) If one wishes to eat before lighting the menorah (for example he will be at work late and won’t light for hours) he should appoint a shomer to remind him to light and this will permit him to eat. (Netai Gavriel 5:6)
9)  The time for lighting the Chanukah candles on Friday is after Plag Hamincha, before sunset, and should burn a half hour after Tzeis Hakochavim. Therefore, care should be taken to see that there should be enough oil in the Menorah at the time of the lighting, to burn for the required amount of time.
10) One should preferably daven Mincha first and then kindle the Chanukah lights. However, if this is not possible, one may light first and then daven Mincha. One should rather daven Mincha with a minyan after lighting the Chanukah candles, then daven alone before lighting the candles. (See Shulchan Aruch 679 and Mishnah Berurah 2)
11)  On Erev Shabbos, the Chanukah lights are kindled before the Shabbos candles even if a man is lighting the Shabbos candles. The reason is that there is a view which holds that men are mekabel Shabbos when he lights the Shabbos candles and melacha is prohibited. Although most poskim disagree with this view, and feel that men are not mekabel Shabbos when lighting the Shabbos candles, the custom is to preferably conduct himself accordingly.
12) However, if a man lit the Shabbos candles and did not intend to usher in Shabbos, he may kindle the Chanukah lights afterwards. This Halacha concerns a man, who does not accept Shabbos by lighting the Shabbos candles. However, when a woman lights the Shabbos candles, the custom is that the she does accept Shabbos and is prohibited from doing any melacha. Therefore, if she should, accidentally, light the Shabbos candles, she is no longer permitted to kindle the Chanukah lights. She should, instead, instruct another person to light for her (as long as it is before sunset) and recite the blessing “Lehadlik Ner Shel Chanuka” on her behalf. She may, however, recite “Sheasa Nissim”. (Mishnah Berurah 679:1)

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Sefer on Kiruv – Volume 3

Hi, I am in the process of completing and printing the third volume of the Sefer on kiruv (Umekareiv Biyamin). Before I begin printing I would like to know if there are any topics that you guys think I should cover. I am printing the table of contents of this upcoming sefer below and if there is something not covered there, please let me know at Thank you


תוכן הענינים
סימן א’ בענין לימוד תורה מרב שאינו הגון

ובו יבואר: מקור לאיסור לימוד תורה מרב שאינו הגון – מי שלימד תורה במוסד קונרסבטיבי – רבי מאיר ואחר – חילוק בין קטנים לגדולים – שיטת הרמב”ם – לימוד מספרים שנכתבו ע”יּ רב שאינו הגון

סימן ב’ גר הבא להתגייר אם מותר להרדימו בסם לפני שנימול

ובו יבואר: הרדמה כללית – שיטת ה”שרידי אש” – הרדמה מקומית – האם בעינן להרגיש צער במילה

סימן ג’ בענין אם יש חיוב קימה בפני זקן חילוני בזמן הזה

ובו יבואר: חיוב לקום מפני “זקן אשמאי” – ביאור בשיטת רש”י – להלכה אין לקום בפני רשע – תינוק שנשבה

סימן ד’ בענין מי שעבר עבירות בקטנותו – אם צריך תשובה

ובו יבואר: קטן שהזיק פטור מלשלם – דעת הגהות אשרי – ביאור בשיטת הראשונים הנ”ל – דברי הרמ”א בענין קטן שעבר עבירה

סימן ה’ בענין הדיון ע”א ההשתטחות על קברי צדיקים ובאיזה אופן מותר להתפלל למלאכים

ובו יבואר: עבודה זרה – מלאכים: דעת המתירים – מלאכים: דעת האוסרים – החילוק בין פניה למלאכים שיכניסו התפילות לפניה לצדיק חי שיתפלל עבורו – אם פניה אל נשמת הצדיקים קיל טפי מפניה למלאכים – מחלוקת הפוסקים איך להתפלל אצל קברי צדיקים

סימן ו’ האם מותר לכהנים לבקר קברי צדיקים

ובו יבואר: מקור ראשון להתיר – מקור שני להתיר – מקורות מהגמרא שצדיקים מטמאים בטומאת המת – שיטת הראב”ד בענין כהנים בזמן הזה – דעת רוב הפוסקים בנד”ד לאסור

סימן ז’ בענין עונש בידי שמים לפחות מבן עשרים

ובו יבואר: מקורות שאין עונשין לפחות מכ’ – להלכה או רק דרוש בעלמא – כמה הלכות וחילוקים בנדון שלנו

סימן ח’ בענין הלעיטהו לרשע וימות וכל המסתעף

ובו יבואר: מקור הדברים – ביאור בדעת הצנועים – לפני עור – חיוב ערבות ומסייע בידי עוברי עבירה – נהג הנוסע בשבת ושואל כיצד להגיע למקום חפצו – בענין מתן תעודת כשרות לבית מלון שיתן חלב צונן אחר ארוחת הבשר

סימן ט’ בענין טעימת סתם יינם

ובו יבואר: טעימת איסור – שיטת הצמח צדק – טעמים לאסור בנד”ד

סימן י’ בענין שינוי שם של בעלי תשובה

ובו יבואר: מקור הדברים – ביאור למה שינוי שמו בלבד מהני – סדר שינוי השם – שינוי השם או תוספת השם – לאיזה סיבה יש לשנות שמו – הלכות שונות

סימן י”א כמה שאלות בענין קריאת שם לתינוק

ובו יבואר: ריע מזליה – נהרג על קידוש השם – קריאה אחר מי שנהרג בהשואה – מת בציערתו – קריאת שם לזכר או לנקבה, או להיפך

סימן י”ב בענין תפלה בבית הקברות

ובו יבואר: דין ק”ש ותפילה בסמוך לקבר – ג’ דיעות בין הפוסקים לברר הענין – האם הדין הנ”ל הינו לכתחלה או גם בדיעבד – היתר א: קברי צדיקים – היתר ב’: להתפלל לכבוד הנפטר – היתר ג’: להעמיק הקבר יותר מי’ טפחים

סימן י”ג בענין טבילה לבעלי תשובה

ובו יבואר: טבילה במומר ששב בתשובה – מקור של הגר”א – חיוב מדרבנן או מנהג בעלמא – דיעות הסוברים שאין צריך טבילה כלל – תינוק שנשבה ואנוס – מחלל שבת בפרהסיא – קבלת חברות

סימן י”ד בנים שנולדו מישראל ונכרית לענין גירות וכל המסתעף

ובו יבואר: אם יש להשתדל לגיירם – דעת הסוברים שאין להשתדל לגיירם – לגמול גוים שלא לשם גרות: דעת המקילים בזה – למול גוים שלא לשם גרות: דעת המחמירים בזה – למול בן הנולד לישראל מנכרית שלא לשם גרות

סימן ט”ו בענין מעשה שבת וכל המסתעף

ובו יבואר: דין של מעשה שבת בשוגג ובמזיד – מחלוקת בין השלחן ערוך והגר”א – גדר “מקום צורך” – לספרדים יש לאסור אף במקום צורך – במעשה שבת של מומר אם צריכין להמתין בכדי שיעשו – אוכל שהובא בשבת באיסור

סימן ט”ז בענין אם מותר לשהות בתוך ביתו פרצוף של אדם בחצי הגוף הנקראת באסט

ובו יבואר: לא תעשון אתי – איסור של חשד – אם האיסור הוא רק בצורה שלמה – לדעת השלחן ערוך יש להקל בנד”ד – לדעת היעב”ץ יש להחמיר בנד”ד – עוד היתר מהחכמת אדם – פסק דין למעשה

סימן י”ז בענין מי שבא ואמר ישראל הוא אם נאמן

ובו יבואר: מי שבא ואמר יהודי הוא נאמן – מי שבא ואמר יהודי אני נאמן אף אם הוא אינו שומר תורה ומצוות – אם מועיל לגבי נשואין – מחלוקת הראשונים בזה – שיטות הפוסקים להלכה – לדעת המתירים הנ”ל אם מותרת לישא כהן – עולי רוסיא

סימן י”ח בענין חיוב כיבוד אב ואם אצל הוריו חילונים

ובו יבואר: מחלוקת הפוסקים אם צריכים לכבד אביו רשע – ביאור בשיטת הרמב”ם – שיטת הפוסקים להלכה – כשההורים תינוקות שנשבו יש לכבדם לכל הדיעות – לעולם אסור לבזותם ולצערם

סימן י”ט בענין האם אשכנזי יוכל לאכול בפסח אצל ספרדי ולאכול תבשיל שנתבשל בכלים שבישלו בהם אורז וקטניות בפסח

ובו יבואר: מנהג הספרדים בקטניות ובאורז – מנהג אשכנז בקטניות ואורז – קטניות שנתערב – כלים שנתבשלו בהם קטניות – ע”פ הנ”ל יש להתיר בנד”ד

סימן כ’ בענין חמץ שעבר עליו הפסח ומכירת חמץ של מומר

ובו יבואר: חמץ שעבר עליו הפסח – חמץ של מומר – מכירת חמץ של יהודי בלי ידיעתו – מכירה כשהמומר ימשיך לאכול מחמץ זה בפסח – עפ”י הנ”ל מצינו עצה למעשה

סימן כ”א מי שמאריך בתפלתו איך להתפלל עם הצבור

ובו יבואר: מקור הדברים – סתימת הפוסקים להקל

סימן כ”ב בענין אי שרי לאחד להיכנס לבית הכנסת להתפלל שם עם הנשק

   ואקדחובו יבואר: מקור הדברים – המתפלל בביתו – כשהנשק מכוסה – נשק בלי כדורים (Bullets) – שיטות הפוסקים להלכה

סימן כ”ג בענין לבישת בגדי לבן לכבוד שבת קודש

ובו יבואר: חשיבות של בגדי שבת – בגדי לבן – אם יש להימנע ללבשן משום מיחזי כיוהרא – דעת הסוברים שאין לחוש ליוהרא – מנהג העולם ללבוש בגדי שחור

סימן כ”ד אם מותר לעבור אצל טלויזיה במעגל סגור

(Closed Circuit Television) ומצלמות בטחון (Security Cameras) בשבתובו יבואר: טלויזיה במעגל סגור – שיטת הגאון רבי משה פיינשטין זצ”ל – פסיק רישא דלא ניחא ליה באיסור דרבנן – אין כאן כתיבה כלל – מצלמות בטחון – שיטת הרשב”א לענין צידה ופסיק רישא

סימן כ”ה בענין הדלקת נרות חשמל לנרות שבת

ובו יבואר: אי יש מצוה בהדלקת הנר או מצוה שיהא נר דלוק – שאלת דידן תלוי במחלוקת הנ”ל – שיטות הפוסקים דגם לר”ת יכול לברך על נר חשמל – אי הדלקת נר חשמל מקרי מעשה הדלקה – עוד טעמים להחמיר בנרות חשמל – שיטות הפוסקים להלכה

סימן כ”ו בענין חזקת כהונה במשפחה חילונית וכל המסתעף

ובו יבואר: מה הדין של כהנים שבזמננו – מי ששם משפחתו “כהן” – חזקת כהונה על פי מצבה – האומר כהן אני האם נאמן – כשאביו לא היה שומר תורה ומצוות

סימן כ”ז בענין יום ההולדת בהלכה

ובו יבואר: מקורות לאיסור – ובחוקותיהם לא תלכו – מקורות לשמוח ביום ההולדת – יום של חשבון הנפש – מנהגי יום הולדת

סימן כ”ח בענין מאכל היתר שנתבשל בתנור איסור

ובו יבואר: ריחא – זיעה – איסור דאורייתא או דרבנן – היתר א’: אין זיעה בתנורים רחבים – היתר ב’: אולי זיעה אינה יורדת – היתר ג’: חום התנור שורף הזיעה – היתר ד’: זיעת מאכלים חמים – להלכה למעשה

סימן כ”ט אימוץ ילדים בהלכה

ובו יבואר: מצוה באימוץ ילדים – פרו ורבו – סגולה ללידת ילדים – אין מצוה באימוץ ילד נכרי – לאמץ ילד יהודי או נכרי – דין גר קטן שאינו גדל בבית שומרי תורה ומצוות – החיוב לגלות לילד שהוא מאומץ – יחוד עם בן ובת מאומצים – כתיבת שמות ההורים של חתן וכלה מאומצים בכתובה – קריאת התורה – כהן או לוי – כיבוד אב ואם – אבלות

סימן ל’ האם גוי ומומר יכול לשמש כשומר לחתן בשבעת ימי חופתו

ובו יבואר: מקור הדברים – מתי צריכים שימור – גוי אינו יכול לשמש כשומר – האם מומר לחלל שבת בפהרסיא יוכל להיות שומר

סימן ל”א אם יש איסור משום מרעית עין בישיבת עסקים במסעדה שאינה כשרה

ובו יבואר: דעת האוסרים – דעת המתירים – איסור מראית עין במקום שלא הוזכר בתלמוד במפורש – מרעית עין משתנה כפי הזמן

סימן ל”ב אם יש ענין לעשות תעניות, או  פדיון תעניות בכסף הפדויים, על חטאים שונים

ובו יבואר: יסוד התשובה – אם תלמידי חכמים צריכים ג”כ להתענות – דעת הסוברים שגם ת”ח חייב להתענות – דעת הסוברים שת”ח פטור להתענות – מספר תעניות למי שחטא כמה פעמים – בענין לפדות התענית בכסף – אם צריך להתענות ביום הפדיון – לזכות הכסף לכל אחד ואחד במתנה ע”מ להחזיר – תעניתים בדורנו דור חלוש – בענין בעל נפש החפץ בקרבת ה’ – איזה אנשים רואים לעשות התיקונים – התיקונים שייך רק אחר שעזב החטא זמן רב – רק לשלומי הדעת – בחורי ישיבות

סימן ל”ג בענין איזה אופן לברך את הילדים

ובו יבואר: טעם לברך ביד אחת – טעם לברך בשתי ידים – שיטות הפוסקים להלכה

סימן ל”ד בענין סיום על אחד מכ”ד ספרי תנ”ך או על משניות

ובו יבואר: מקור של שמחת “סיום מסכת” – סיום ספר מתנ”ך – שיטת רבי שלמה קלוגר זצ”ל – סיום על  פרק א’ מהגמרא – משניות – סדר משניות – סיום מסכתות קטנות – סיום הרמב”ם ושאר ספרים –

סימן ל”ה בענין בעל עבירה להיות שליח צבור

ובו יבואר: מקור הדברים – אסור אפילו באקראי – מוטב להתפלל ביחידות – בגדר בעל עבירה הפסול לש”ץ – תינוק שנשבה – אשרי ובא לציון – למנות חוטא שעשה תשובה להיות ש”ץ – בעלי תשובה שבזמננו

סימן ל”ו הליכה אחורי אשה

ובו יבואר: מקור הדברים – טעם האיסור – רחוק ד’ אמות – הליכה אחורי אשה בזמננו

סימן ל”ז ברכות שבע ברכות בשבעת ימי המשתה כשהכלה אינה בתולה

ובו יבואר: מקור הדברים – איש שכבר בעל ואשה שכבר נבעלה – כלה שהיא בעולה שנשאת לאלמון או לגרוש – כבוד הבריות ואיסורים דרבנן – הרואה את חבירו לבוש כלאים –

סימן ל”ח סוחר שיש לו “וועבסייט

על ה”אינטרט- האם מחוייב לסגרו בשבת

ובו יבואר: שיטת הגרע”א בענין מקח וממכר בשבת – שאלת דידן תלוי על הנ”ל – מכירה אוטומטי (Vending Machine) בשבת

סימן ל”ט בענין איך להתפלל על חולה כשאינו יודע שם אמו

ובו יבואר: מקור למנהג שמתפללים על שם האם ולא על שם האב – טעם א’: צריך להתפלל על אמו שהיא וודאות – טעם ב’: אין על האשה קטרוגים כמו האיש – טעם ג’: בשביל בן נכרי – אם אינו יודע שם האם מותר להזכיר שם האב

Eating On Yom Kippur For A Choleh

1) A pregnant woman must fast on Yom Kippur. (S.A. 517:1) Someone whose life may be in danger by fasting on Yom Kippur is obligated to eat. Not all cholim who are obligated to eat on Yom Kippur have the same halachic dispensation. There are cholim (who may be in danger) whose illness only warrants minimal eating or drinking. Minimal consumption is termed pachos mi’keshiur, or “shiurim”. Eating in shiurim means eating not more than a prescribed amount within a prescribed period of time.
2) At times a doctor will forbid a pregnant woman from fasting if she suffers from high blood pressure, diabetes, or if she has experienced miscarriages in the past. A pregnant woman must therefore consult with her doctor and her rabbi before Yom Kippur to see if she can fast. Even if the doctor and rabbi advise her to eat she must ascertain whether eating and drinking pachos m’kishiur would suffice. We will therefore discuss the laws of eating on Yom Kippur for a choleh, however, every woman must discuss her particular situation with her rabbi, because everyone’s circumstances and specific needs are unique.
3) In the event that one must eat or drink on Yom Kippur, one should first say the following prayer:
הנני מוכן ומזומן לקיים מצות אכילה ושתיה כמו שכתבת בתורתך, ושמרתם את חוקתי ואת משפטי אשר יעשה אותה האדם וחי בהם, ובזכות קיום מצוה זו, תחתום אותי ואת כל חולי עמך ישראל לרפואה שלימה, ואזכה ביום הכפורים הבא לקיים שוב ועניתם את נפשותיכם. כן יהי רצון, אמן.
“I am about to fulfill the mitzvah of eating and drinking, as You wrote in Your Torah, ‘And you shall keep My statutes and My laws that one must do and live through them.’ In the merit of fulfilling this mitzvah, please seal my decree, and that of all those who are ill among Your nation Yisrael, for a complete recovery. Next Yom Kippur, may I merit to fulfill once again the mitzvah of ‘you shall afflict your souls [through fasting].’ May this be Your will, Amen.” (See Netai Gavriel Yom Kippur Page 295)
4) Eating- On Yom Kippur the pachos mi’keshiur requirement for food is the volume of food that is less than a koseves hagasa, a type of large date. Harav Moshe Heinemenn shlit”a explains that the volumetric measurement of a koseves hagasa is more than 1.5 fl. oz. (44 ml). Therefore, one who is ill (as above) may eat 1.5 fl. oz. (which is less than a koseves hagasah) of food. Harav Ovadia Yosef zt”l Therefore, one who is ill (as above) may eat 1.5 fl. oz. (which is less than a koseves hagasah) of food. Harav Ovadia Yosef zt”l however, writes, “The common custom is to give one who is ill pieces of bread with a condiment the size of 30 grams (1.05 oz.).” The OU in a recent halacha yomis email also stated that it is close to 1 ounce. Therefore, lchatchila, if possible one should be strict and follow that view, if possible.
5) One should preferably measure out the food before Yom Kippur. However, if one did not do so one may measure the food on Yom Kippur. (Chazon Ovadia Yomim Noraim page 297)
6) In between eating sessions one must wait kdei achilas pras, the amount of time it takes to eat a pras of bread. The poskim debate how many minutes it takes to eat a pras of bread:
A) According to the Chasam Sofer (6:15)- 9 minutes.  This is also the view of the Mishnah Berurah (618:22).
B) The Baal Hatania is cited as ruling that it is 8 minutes. (See Shiurei Torah by Rav Chaim Naeh page 204)
C) According to the Aruch Lner (Bikurei Yaakov 639:13)- 7.5 minutes. This is also the view of Harav Dovid Tzvi Hoffman zt”l. (Melamed L’Hoeil 113:5)
D) There are conflicting reports of the view of the Tzemech Tzedek. One report from the Tzemach Tzedek is 7 minutes. While another report from the Tzemach Tzedek is 6 minutes. (See Shulchan Menachem page 43 and Katzos Hashulchan 2:36:5) Harav Ovadia Yosef zt”l (Yabia Omer 9:108:96) writes that, “The proper amount of time (kdei achilas pras) in accordance with most authorities is between 6 and 7.5 minutes.”
E) Harav Yitzchak Elchonon Spekter zt”l is cited as ruling that one should wait 5 minutes. (See Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim page 298)
F) Harav Moshe Feinstein zt”l (Igros Moshe Orach Chaim 4:41) writes that while one should wait on Yom Kippur 9 minutes, if this is difficult one may wait half that amount (4.5 minutes).
G) It should be noted that Harav Ahron Felder zt”l writes that Harav Moshe told him that a choleh should wait 4 minutes between eating sessions on Yom Kippur. (Rishumei Ahron vol. 2 page 47)
H) The Shemiras Shabbos K’Hilchoso (Chapter 39:18) cites the Chasam Sofer that at the very least one should wait 2 minutes between eating sessions.
7) For practical halacha, one should wait 9 minutes between eating sessions. If this does not suffice and the person must eat more frequently they should wait as long as she can, depending on her state of health. At all events, one should wait for a period of at least 2 minutes. (Shemiras Shabbos K’Hilchoso ibid.)
8) Drinking- The minimal volume for beverages that qualifies for shiurim is less than a m’lo lugmav, a cheekful of liquid. Unlike food, the shiur of liquids differs with each individual’s capacity to hold liquid in his or her mouth. The larger the mouth, the larger the m’lo lugmav. Conversely, the smaller the mouth, the smaller the m’lo lugmav. (S.A. 612:9) Harav Moshe Heinemann shlit”a explains that for purposes of drinking on Yom Kippur we say an average adult has a m’lo lugmav that is larger than 1.5 fl. oz. (44 ml). A teenager may have a smaller m’lo lugmav.
9) One can ascertain his or her personal m’lo lugmav by filling his mouth completely with water, expelling the water into a measuring cup and dividing the amount in half. This number is the amount held by one cheek – a m’lo lugmav. Pachos mi’keshiur is slightly less than this amount. This “test” should preferably be conducted before Yom Kippur. (M.B. 618:21)
10) How long should one wait between drinking sessions. Ideally, one should wait 9 minutes between drinking, as one would ideally wait between eating sessions. (Chazon Ovadia Yomim Noraim page 297) If this amount of liquid is insufficient for the patient, one may drink this amount of liquid every two minutes. (View of Rav Moshe Feinstein zt”l Rishumei Ahron vol. 2 page 47)
11) If it is determined that this amount is insufficient and one’s life may still be in danger, the patient must drink as much as necessary, even if it is more than the shiur of volume and less than the shiur of time.
12) If staying in bed will help prevent the patient from eating, even one session, in shiurim, she should stay in bed and not go to shul. (Shemiras Shabbos K’Hilchoso 39:28)
13) A patient who has to eat in shiurim must not eat or drink more than he or she needs that day in order to keep him or her out of danger. (Shemiras Shabbos K’Hilchoso 39:26)

14) It must be remembered that eating or drinking in shiurim is permitted only if the doctor and rabbi require it and that a person who is ill but is not in danger must not eat or drink at all, even if confined to bed.